There is a limit to what one photographer can do at a wedding. It is only possible to be in one place at any given moment. For example, it is generally impossible to photograph both the bride's preparation and that of the groom. Photographing the bride's preparation also tends to reduce the time available to catch the guests arriving at the service or ceremony.
A second photographer relieves these pressures to some extent, but a degree of planning and co-ordination is required. During the service or ceremony, the second photographer might remain at the rear of the church or venue, while the principal photographer stands at the front to capture the vows and exchanges of rings. Later, one person might shoot the formal groups, whilst the other looks for interesting candid pictures. During the reception, the two photographers can split the work between the speeches, the cutting of the cake and the first dance on the one hand, and detail and informal shots on the other.
Finally, having a second photographer present does provide a little security and reassurance. If one person has a problem, at least the other photographer will have some shots.